Pompeii and Herculaneum are unique and remarkable because of their extraordinary state of preservation. No other archaeological site gives us so much information about life in ancient Rome. Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried in the volcanic eruption in 79AD in different ways, effectively which preserved majority of both sites. These archaeological remains that were left behind, such as bakeries, food bars, brothels, fulleries, wine presses and the Garum industry reveal a great deal about Industries and Occupations of this ancient civilisation. Reliability, usefulness and limitations of these sources play a important role in the accuracy of information. Partially, much of our knowledge about occupations and industries comes from bakeries, as somewhat 33 bakeries have been found scattered around Pompeii. In source 1, the Bakery of Modestus, 81 round loaves of bread divided into eight segments were found concealed in the oven. Although some households may have made their own bread, archaeological evidence reveals that at time of the eruption, most people had bought their bakeries. This evidence is also reliant on the fact that very few houses in Pompeii contained ovens. The bones of two donkeys were found still harnessed to the mills in a bakery in Herculaneum. This evidence suggests that most bakeries functioned this way. It can also be argued that slaves did this job as well. This evidence can be considered reliable and useful as of its number of convincing factors, and no opposing evidence suggesting otherwise. Thermopoliums (snack bars) have also broadened our knowledge about occupation in Herculaeum, as they were very common in ancient everyday life and seen throughout ruins of both towns . A total of over 130 small hot food bars have been identified to this day. In source 2, it can be speculated that food was taken and eaten standing up, as few Thermopoliums had tables and chairs. Penelope Allison, an Australian archaeologist suggests that that the peoples busy lives probably left little time for long meals at the dinner table. This evidence is concluding but can not be relied upon as limited evidence clarifies that they did so. The location of food bars in Herculaneum were mainly found opposite the Palaestra, this is revealing evidence of a great marketing scheme which we still use to this day. This allowed the business to attract more customers and therefore make more usiness. This evidence is also limiting but can be classified as useful in the development of increasing knowledge. Another aspect revealing much about Pompeii's occupational life was Prostitution, also know as lupanaria (brothels) was one of the most popular business in all of Roman society. In Source 3, a erotic image on the wall of a Lupanaria, reveals advertisement of particular specialities of a prostitute. We can speculate whether these images were painted on the wall to erouse customers, and or to illistrate different expierences that could be purchased. Many brothels also contained graffiti that mentioned the names of the women who worked their, and customers and the particular services they provided. These useful sources of information are limiting but contribute to our growing knowledge of Prostitution in Pompeii. Furthermore, Fulleries give us a considerable insight on the cloth manufacturing process in Pompeii. In source 4, the fullery of Stephanus, we can learn valuable information on manufacturing process of cloths. Paintings on the wall in the house of Stephanus reveal the process in which the cloths were cleaned. Jars found at the back of the fullery still contained traces of ammonia, which indicate that urine was a important ingredient in the cleaning process. We also know of this key ingrediant as Pliny the Elder states that camel urine was prized most of all. These sources offering information can be considered reliable and useful to archaeologists. Likewise, another Industry that played a important part in Pompeii and Herculaneum economy was production of wine. In source 5, a wine press found in Pompeii, reveals valuable knowledge contributing to the production of wine, as the wine press was involved in the process of wine making. Many houses have been found with wine presses in them aswell as doliums, in which the wine was stored in. Wine was sold widely around the town, as indicated in graffiti on shop fronts. Pliny the Elder states that â€˜Pompeian wine could cause a headache that last to none the next day', this supporting evidence gives archaeologists a insight into the quality of which Pompeian wine was, although many customers applauded Pompeian wines, this is evidential by graffiti in bars. Majority of this evidence is both reliable and useful to archaeologists. Another addition to growing knowledge of Pompeii and Herculaneum's economy was the production of Garum. Only one Garum shop has been identified in Pompeii, this shop is shown in source 1 and is supporting evidence towards the production of Garum. Garum was extremely popular, Archaeologists know this with reference to Pliny the Elder who quotes â€˜no other liquid except urgents has come to be more highly valued'. Archaeologists can also apprehend that Garum was distributed and sold widley around the Italian surrounding areas, we know this from containers of garum that have benn found scattered around the Vesuvius area, as well as traces of Garum jars found in France. As study performed by Robert Curtis, estimated that 70% of Garum was locally produced, this came from the remains of Garum in containers. Pliny statement can be considered reliable as well as useful to archaeologists, this is applies to Robert Curtis' study. In conclusion, it can be argued that Pompeii and Herculaneum are two of the most unigue and important sites of the ancient world.
Connor Doyle Summary of Body Ritual among the Nacirema 10/20/2012 Introduction to Sociology The Nacirema Horace Miner depicted this cultural group located in Northwest America â€œliving in the territory between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antillesâ€ (Miner 503). Closely imitating the United States of America. If you take a look at the Nacirema's name spelled backwards, its American. The concept behind this is that Miner wanted to describe American's rituals in a way that people would deem crazy.But in all actuality, it's what us humans do everyday and never think twice of it. For if we forgot to do one of these things, we would feel uncomfortable all day long. â€œAccording to Nacirema mythology, their nation was originated by a culture hero, Notgnihsaw,â€ Hines describes that, â€œhe was known for two great feats of strengthâ€”the throwing of a piece of wampum across the river Pa-To-Mac and the chopping down of a cherry tree in which the Spitit of Truth residedâ€ (Miner 503). This is referring to, what many religions call, God. It's a universal feeling that everyone wants to encounter, that their is a higher power somewhere.He then goes on to say the â€œNacirema culture is charecterized by a highly developed market economy which has evolved in a rich natural habitatâ€ (Miner 503). This is refering to our Free Market Economy. The way we evolved in a â€œrich natural habitatâ€, is that we've always been prosepering since our birth as a country. With the exceptions of some down falls, we have been the world's leading power. It states that the Nacirema focus a lot of activity on the human body and its appearance. He states that it is a dominate concern, making every other aspect in life second best.Though many cultures have similar rituals to this, regarding the body, these aspects on society are quite unique. They even believe that their own human body is ugly making it a natural reaction to try and improve your situation. They also acknowledge the fact that the human body deterioates and attracts disease. Since man knows these facts, the only option left is to perform rituals regarding the improvement of your body. He says that in every Nacirema's house their is at lease one shrine devoted mainly to the self-improvement of the people. This is refering to what we commonly know as a bathroom.If you really come to think about it, the bathroom is almost souly used for self-improvement. Every action from shaving, to brushing your teeth is preconcieved and is subconcsiously telling you that you need these things everyday. He goes on to say that â€œthe rituals associated with it are not family ceremonies but are private and secret. â€ Then he states that the only time you really talk about these rituals are to your children, and only telling them the basics while they are still growing up. Another big part of the Nacirema culture is the medicine man.He is the only one that knows what is in the secret potion. Every Nacirema believes that if they are to go without these magic potions, they would cease to live. It goes hand in hand with the culture of our society. If people don't have a cure for the smallest thing, they still feel vulnerable. We rely on so many perscriptions, medications, and cure-alls for a quick fix. Without these things, we as a society would feel completely weak. They say that the medicine man can only work if they recieve â€œsubstantial giftsâ€ (Miner 504), which is the same for our doctors as well.Even when the Nacirema have been done with the charms, they still keep the expired remains in their drawer just for safety. In fear that without these charms, they would remain vulnerable. The medicine man is even able to make a women's breast larger or smaller, depending on the request. The holy man, refered to in the Nacirema culture, is what we commonly know as the Dentist. Miner says that in addition to brushing and maintaing their teeth, they visit a â€œholy-mouth-man once or twice a year. They refer to a Dentist tool's as â€œparaphernalia, consisting of a variety of augers, awls, probes, and prodsâ€ (Miner 504). To the untrained eye that's what it looks like. Not many other cultures around the world, that are not as prosperous, ever make visits to a Dentist. They go on to say that â€œthese objects in the exorcism of the evils of the mouth involves almost unbelievable ritual torture of the clientâ€ (Miner 505). Their has always been a fear of pain when attending the Dentist. Young children dread going every year, but to their parents and their society it is standard to have a high maintance mouth.
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